Thursday, February 13, 2020

Under non-ideal conditions, it is necessary to trade off between Essay

Under non-ideal conditions, it is necessary to trade off between relevance and reliability when estimating future cash flows. Critically appraise this statement - Essay Example In this regard, the reliability of accounting information as an apparatus for forecasting future cash flows require accreditation from the actual source to ascertain its relevance to the study of future trends concerning cash flows (Gandevani 74). For accounting information to be relevant in the estimation of future cash flows, it must be in accord with the established international accounting principle. Financial analysts argue that accounting transactions that are not supported by the reality in contextual market are defective and misleading, and their reliability is irrelevant in predicting future cash flows (Gandevani 73). In fact, failure to incorporate both reliability and relevance in decision making will always lead to unprofitable returns. For instance, unreliable information might lead to overestimation or underestimation of future cash flows, and this may result in poor planning of activities. It is important to recognize that accounting conservatisms is pro relevance at the expense of reliability which means that relevance of accounting figures and transaction is a vital tool for estimation of future cash flows. In summary, both reliability and relevance must be put into consideration when estimating future cash f lows for an

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Ethicacy of Providing Health Coverage for Inmates While The Essay

The Ethicacy of Providing Health Coverage for Inmates While The General Populace Is Offered None - Essay Example In making a judgment and ethical decision concerning this issue, two prominent ethical standards can appropriately address them: the utilitarian approach and the rights approach. These two can collectively define and explain ethical elements in the subject and could fill the weaknesses posed by each other. Utilitarian approach is fundamental in expressing the view of the common good and in reaching the best possible compromise so that questions from both sides of the ethics divide can be effectively and justly resolved. Meanwhile, the rights approach is important in arguing for and against healthcare for prisoners because the discussion is, after all, about the satisfaction of human/individual rights. This is significant because acts that respect rights are often universally accepted as ethical. The Ethical Issues The health care within the American prison system is not uniform because each of the federal and state prisons has its own health care delivery system. However, this does n ot dispel the fact that medical and health options are available to all prisoners regardless of the system of the prison health care system they belong. Many people raise the point that healthcare for prisoners is unethical because it is expensive and takes a lot from the taxpayers’ money just so criminals can live a healthy life. To digress a little, this question effectively highlights the stakeholders involved in the debate – the prisoners, the authority, the general populace and the health care practitioner. But the argument is that they do not deserve such a care because they are serving their punishment in the first place. Here, bias is supposedly a given since convicted criminals are being deprived of certain rights as part of their penalty and rehabilitation. This point is, of course, valid. Beginning in the 1980s, the rising population in the prisons has significantly claimed a significant share of many states’ budgets. According to a study by Maddow (2 001), the US health care prison cost have dramatically risen at a faster rate than the rest of the correctional costs and that today prison officials are beset by rising numbers of expensive illnesses such as HIV/AIDS as well as the ever-present threat of Eighth Amendment lawsuits. (p. 191) Two points are being emphasized by critics: one, criminals do not deserve healthcare; and, secondly, they are not paying for the care services. These points sometimes also cloud the health care providers’ judgments. There are instances wherein bias sets in and appropriate and sufficient medical services are withheld. But this is not entirely surprising. One, for instance, can consider the case cited by Gaines and Miller (2010) summarized below: A prisoner, who was convicted for fourteen years because of robbery, has been hospitalized due to his heart ailment. The doctors declared that if the patient did not undergo heart transplant, he would die. Now, the state’s Department of Corre ctions have to deal with not only with spending more than $1 million in order to pay for the medical expenses but that it also had to muscle its way in having the prisoner prioritized from among the 4,100 names that are in the national waiting list for a new heart. (p. 499) The above case underscored the

Friday, January 24, 2020

Historical development of the atom :: essays research papers fc

The notion of the atom all stared about 450 BC when a Greek scholar starting think when can something break on more, when are the pieces at their smallest, this mans name was Leucippus. Leucippus also had pupil who also thought the same way as Leucippus, his name was Democritus. They developed there ideas and when Democritus died his theory summed up briefly was that everything in the world was made of tiny pieced that could not be broken up any more. That how the word atom was derived from the Greek work â€Å"atomos† meaning â€Å"unbreakable†. This was the start of the theory of atoms. The first time this theory was taught at a school was by Epicurus 306 BC which he established himself.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The theory laid dormant for about 2 millenniums this was basically because it was all but forgotten, this was because it had no evidence, and it was only logic. One of the first people to show some evidence was Robert Boyle, an English chemist. In 1662 he conducted ‘Boyle’s experiment and compressed air in a ‘J’ tube with mercury, this opened up a whole new window.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This lead to new and old thought about different types of atoms, elements. The Greeks thought simular to this but only divided it up into four groups. Their theory was close to Boyle’s but Boyle had a more concise idea of these elements and by the end of the 1700’s they had discovered about 30 elements.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1972 Frenchman Antoine Laurent Lavoisier discover the no mater what happens a substance always has the same weight. In the late 1700’s another Frenchman, Proust, discovert that elements can be combined to make different compounds, and that certain proportions had to be used. This became know as â€Å"law of definite proportions†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A few years later an English chemist, John Dalton, a fan of Boyle worked on Proust’s theory and came up with â€Å"the law of multiple proportions†. Dalton soon came up with ‘weight’ theories of the atom a discovered that hydrogen was the lightest.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1813 Jons Jakob Berzelius created a system using the Latin words for the element to represent that element.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 1860 the chemist of Europe had their first international Chemical Congress to discuss the matter. They theory that prevailed was Cannizzaro theory. John Thomson was born in 1856, and is recognised as the British scientist who discovered and identified the electron.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Corporate Entrepreneurship Essay

Background: US Broadcasting Industry: The US media industry was the second largest market around world at $255.1 billion and was forecast to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 2.3 percent till 2017. Within the media industry, broadcasting and TV was the largest category with a market of $142.6 billion. The industry players were competing mainly with one another for viewership to drive advertising revenue which was the primary source of profits. The traditional advertising driven business model started to shift due to a few trends. First of all, there were more ways for broadcasting advertisers to reach customers. The progressive consumerization of technologies such as social media tools had contributed to this trend. Secondly, new technology products made it possible for users to skip advertising. Thirdly, the content creation was getting localized and the audience was fragmenting. Fourthly, more television advertising was purchased through consolidated conglomerates which had various resources with better insights about their target audiences. Lastly, the switch from analogue to digital TV broadcasting not only led to multicasting with more channels but also made the industry more favorable for new entrants. In general, the technologies were putting so much pressures on the traditional business of this industry. Latinos in the US: There were also unique factors for this largest minority group in US. Firstly, the Latinos were growing at 8 times the rate of the non-Latino population and contributed to nearly 17% of US total population. Other than that, the per capita income of US Latinos were higher than any of the BRIC and households and was growing at a faster rate than the number of total households in US. Thirdly, Latinos were on the path of â€Å"acculturation† and they were leading dual lives. However, the Latinos formed only 6% of the total marketing pie as an audience and there did exist a huge gap. As a result, Latino market had truly become the most potential market segment for various industries. Entravision, Luminar and the Big Data: Entravision, which had 56 TV stations and 49 radio stations in most popular Latino markets across US in 2013, was the largest independent public media company focused principally on the US Latino audience. Regards all the strong corporate performances and growths, Franklin Rios and Walter Ulloa, the founding chairman of Entravision, had agreed on to set up an analytics division called Luminar in Entravision. The main objective of Luminar was to act as the first mover which would leverage Big Data analytics at Entravision to offer exceptional marketing and advertising products as well as lead Entravision to transform from a media company into an information and analytics company. Situation: Rios understood the impacts both the technological trends and the Latino demographic trends had made to the US broadcasting industry. He understood that the traditional market research tools had limitations which would not help him to further extract insights from the US Latino market and the search for alternatives led him to the Big Data. His Big Data initiative was strongly supported by Ulloa as he believed that leveraging Big Data at Entravision could not only help them to fully understand the Latino market to extract its huge potential values but also serves as a new element of corporate strategy to lead Entravision to stand out from its traditional media industry competitors. As a result, Rios and Ulloa decided to establish Luminar as the Big Data analytic division at Entravision. At the same time, Ulloa’s own interest in the launch of Luminar we driven by these 4 objectives: Entravision should transform from a media company into an information and analytics company. Laminar would be the centerpiece of such a transformation of Entravision. The new data driven approach of Luminar would complement the traditional survey driven approach of Entravision. Luminar would in the long run to be a new revenue stream for Entravision. As the first mover in the space without any competitor in sight, Luminar and Entravision had gained strategic advantages over their competitors. Using the Socio-technical framework to further understand Luminar and Entravision’s positions under the Big Data environment, it is important to consider Entravision and Luminaries respectively and then collectively to evaluate how closely they align with each other: Entravision: Structure: A listed company, multiple broadcasting stations, with traditional corporate function units such as Finance, Marketing, R&D, Sales and etc. People: Nearly 1,000 employees, familiar with the old industry norms, believe qualitative data was more important than quantitative data. IT: Majorly TV and Radio, mobile, digital, web, other interactive media Process: All kinds of traditional ways of delivering values to customers, community involvement, local content creation. Luminar: Structure: New corporate entrepreneurship, division of Entravision, President Rios reporting directly to Ulloa, initial investments all from parent company People: Exposed to technologies and innovations, data driven, IT: Huge amount of data from various sources, Hortonworks, MapReduce, high performance data analysis platform Process: New revenue streams, data analytics, using various algorithms From the above Socio-technical framework analysis, there were huge differences between Entravision and Luminar in terms of structure, people, IT and process. Also, this distinct misalignment could seed potential roadblocks for Luminar’s future growth. Problems: Rios was truly facing some problems before the launch of Luminar. First of all, the growth target set by Ulloa for Luminar to generate 10% of the revenues of Entravision in 5 years was achievable but was too aggressive and pressuring. He was confident that with no competitors in the market Luminar could reach this target, however, he did need more time to sort out other problems. Secondly, unbalanced interests lead him to question about the  effectiveness of Luminar’s structure fit into Entravision as a fully embedded division. Moreover, there was no proper performance measurement system existing at that moment for Luminar to build up the credibility both internally and externally. Furthermore, although Luminar could approach internally or externally, there was still no clear direction for Luminar regarding how to leverage Big Data analytics at Entravision. Lastly, Rios was also worried about how he could sustain a first mover advantage for Luminar and the business model could not easily been imitated by competitors. Based on all the issues Rios were concerning, the fundamental problem should lied on that there were no internal buy-in at Entravision because people were skeptical about Luminar. Therefore, how to successfully securing internal buy-in became extremely critical to Luminar’s sustainable long term growth. Analysis: Obviously, for Entravision, it had stable business and constant growth for years. At the same time, the strong demographic trend of Latino group was bringing more and more opportunities for future business of Entravision. Furthermore, the traditional marketing method based on qualitative data were still believed to be reliable. As a result, there was no evidence of any burning platform at Entravision and thus no urgency for any organizational change. The socio-technical framework analysis in the situation part also shows that there were distinct misalignments between Luminar and Entravision regarding the 4 organizational aspects including structure, people, IT and processes. These misalignments indicates that it could be really hard for Entravision people to understand, accept and then support what Luminar was about to do. Securing internal buy-in Entravision was really critical to Luminar. First of all, as its entrepreneur division, Entravision would be committing funds for the laun ch of the Big Data initiative and its growth. The funds would be provided to Luminar on annual basis. Thus, if the internal buy-in was not in place, Luminar’s funds for growth would not be guaranteed regardless the performance of Luminar. Secondly, one of the major objectives for establishing Luminar was to make it as a central part of corporate strategy to transform Entravision from a traditional media company  to an information and analytics company. Rios and Ulloa had to admit that this was also an attempt to change the underlying corporate culture of Entravision and culture change has been considered as the most challenging part for any organization change. Without internal buy-in, the transformation efforts would quickly fade out without changing the DNA of Entravision. Thirdly, the new data driven approach of Luminar was expected to be complemented with the traditional survey driven approach of Entravision. Without internal support from Entravision R&D department, Luminar would not be able to come up with more int egrated and systematic solutions to its customer and offer its customer with better and insightful marketing solutions to target at the US Latino group. In addition, Luminar relied strongly on the partnership with Entravision. Entravision’s market experiences as well as customer relationships could provide Luminar with a very resourceful platform to start their sales. If Luminar could not secure internal buy-in from department such as Marketing, Luminar would not be able to leverage this resourceful platform to make itself as a new revenue stream for Entravision. When we look back at the minor problems in the previous section that Rios was trying to figure out, it seems that most of them were resulted from the major issue that there were no internal buy-in in place. For example, Rios was wondering what kind of structural fit Luminar should be, what caused this was exactly the different interests from internal stakeholders. If they all the internal stakeholders were supporting Luminar, the anticipated structural fit for Luminar to be a strategic division in Entravision should be the win-win solution. Other than that, Rios’ concern on performance milestones was also caused by the lack of internal buy-in because Rios needed to lead Luminar to achieve those milestones to establish credibility with not only with customers but also with employees of Entravision. Decision Criteria: 1: Financial stability The first criteria for evaluating the best option is financial stability. Although Luminar was different from traditional type of startup companies which were always looking for sources of funds, Luminar still faced  pressures from losing support from Ulloa and Entravision. If there was not any feasible substitution for funds available for Luminar, Luminar should try to ensure the current committed funds from Entravision. 2: Remove resistances from R&D, finance and sales department Internal resists came primarily from the three sources which are R&D, finance and sales departments. The winning option should effectively remove the roadblocks from all of these 3 departments. Luminar absolutely needed corporations from these 3 departments to support its long term growth. The R&D would be providing human and technical resources for Luminar to develop the Big Data analytic solutions. The finance department would be responsible for funding Luminar and measuring its performance. Sales department would help Luminar approach its new products and solutions to Entravision’s existing customers as well as any new potential customers. 3: Sustain long term culture change This criteria requires the option to be able to sustain long term culture change inside Entravision. Basically, the option could further help the Entravision employee understand what Big Data is and what kind of benefits Big Data could bring to them. If the Entravision employees started to realize the solutions based on quantitative data is better than the traditional norms based on the qualitative data, they would start to accept Big Data and Luminar and finally start to change the culture. 4: Potence of creating business synergies and new revenue streams. This criteria is used to evaluate if the options have potential to create business synergies and new revenue streams. The Luminar was not even started so everything was still unknown. As a result, one of the easiest ways to secure internal buy-in would be showing that the option had potential to create business synergies and new revenue streams. The above 4 criteria are listed according to their priorities. Criteria 1 must be satisfied as it is critical to all new business adventure. Criteria 2 also needs to be satisfied because unable to remove those major resistances could directly result in failing the process of securing  internal buy-in. Criteria 3 also needs to be satisfied as it could further strengthen the internal buy-in by eventually encoding the data analytics into Entravision’s DNA. The last criteria is also important as satisfying it could deliver Entravision with even higher level of confidence in Luminar. Options: Since Luminar was not even started, the proposed options here are basically strategic proposals that Rios could present to Ulloa and the board of directors to show how he could possibly secure the internal buy-in. 1: Luminar as an independent startup company and acts as a strategic partner with Entravision For this option, Rios would propose that Luminar to become a separate company and maintain an arm’s-length with Entravision. As an independent startup company, Luminar would acquire its own resources such as R&D, HR, Operation, Marketing and Sales. With initial funds from Entravision, Luminar could go out and seek more venture capitals for its build up and future development. At the same time, the company can focus on its own corporate vision and objectives without worrying about any resistances from Entravision. As a strategic partner with Entravision, Luminar could still take advantage from Entravision’s resourceful platform. For this option, since Luminar did not have any prototype available and with only the ideas in Rios’ mind, it could be really hard for Luminar to seek external venture capitals. In the meantime, securing funds from Entravision executives would also become harder as it is no longer a part of Entravision. As a result, this option has very high risk in securing the financial stability and could not satisfy the first criteria. Luminar would no longer act as a change agent in Entravision if it becomes independent. Thus this option would also not meet criteria 3. Although this option strongly satisfying criteria 2, it still can be easily opted out as it does not meet the most important criteria 1 and 3. 2: Luminar as a strategic division and focus on leveraging Big Data externally For this option, Luminar would keep the current structure fit to be a strategic division of Entravision. At the same time, Luminar would  focus on leveraging Big Data externally by targeting with external customers. Rios already had initiatives in mind and he planned to develop three specific products based on Big Data at Luminar. The first product would be Analytics which could interpret data to help clients target their customers better. The second product would be a service that could â€Å"cookie-tize† offline transactions data to merge with online data and altogether to enable clients to expand the scope of their digital market. The third product could improve the accuracy of social media to provide customers with more fine-grind market insights. Rios would initially use the three new products to aim at blue chip marketers and advertisers who were Entravision customers and provide them with competitive advantages. For this option, as long as Luminar could generate topline performance, Entravision would continue to invest in Luminar. As a result, this option satisfy criteria 1 as it keeps Entravision as the best investor to keep financial stability. Luminar’s focus on external customers might not effectively remove the resistance from its R&D department. However, by targeting at the blue chip key customers, any successful sales closure could turn the marketing team from resistance to support. Regarding the financial department, as long as the revenue starts to come in, CFO and the financial folks would start to believe in Luminar. Thus, for the second criteria, this option could partially satisfy it. For the third criteria, as most of Entravision employees were still not able to see the benefits that Big Data could bring to them and with remaining major resistance from R&D department, this option could not effectively sustain the long term culture change. For the criteria 4, this option successfully satisfy it as it would definitely create new revenue streams for Entravision. 3: Further leveraging Big Data at Entravision through internal innovations. This option is basically built on the top of option 2 and Lumina would further leveraging Big Data internally. Luminar would still focus strongly on the existing external customers and developing those 3 products for offering. Other than that, Luminar would design and develop tools and solutions specifically tailored to internal departments. For example, Luminar could develop Big Data initiatives to help finance department to tracking real time cash flows as well as forecasting budgets. For HR  department, solutions could be created for helping them in team building and performance evaluation. For sales department, Big Data could also help them in inventory management, forecasting, relationship management, closing deals and etc. Regarding the R&D department, Luminar could also offer solutions which were basically better than what they were having. Meanwhile, Luminar could work with R&D department to achieve predictive analytics in the future. For this option, it would boost the corporate performance through both internal and external initiatives. It could definitely satisfy criteria 1. For criteria 2, this option further indicates what Luminar and Big Data could bring to those 3 departments. With both the external performance and internal benefits, the 3 departments would likely to start buy-in and thus this criteria is also satisfied. For the third criteria, this option allows Lumina to distinguish most number of early adopters throughout the corporation and they could simply help with spreading the DNA out to rest of the corporation to sustain the long term culture change. For the last criteria, this option is truly able to show that Luminar would be potential to create business synergies by offering various internal initiatives and new revenue streams through those 3 mentioned products targeting external customers. By comparing all of the above options, approaching the third option seems the most favorable as it satisfy all of the four criteria. When Rios was about to propose this option to Ulloa and the board of directors, they would be confident that Luminar could successfully remove the resistances and secure sufficient internal buy-in. Plan: Short term: 6 months to 1 year For the short term, Rios should clearly propose the winning option to Ulloa and rest of the board of directors. He needed to explain the proposal with great details which would help the directors to carry forward his ideas and messages down to each department of Entravision. The next thing Rios should do was to officially establish Luminar and start seeking for the resources to build up his team. The DNA of the Entravision was not analytical, thus,  it would be better to attract resources from outside of Entravision. At the same time, Luminar should target at hiring analytic resources with strong Latino background as they know how to generate better insights from the Latino market. By end of the 6th month, Luminar should have the core team successfully built. After that, Luminar should start the data acquisition tasks. The process he envisioned involved building a database of US adults and a subset of Latino adults in US. Then, Luminar would extract data from social media tools such as blogs, tweets and YouTube. Together, this would generate, from preliminary reckoning, about 125 terabyte of living, breathing data which could be analyzed in real time. Going forward, the data would be ingested into Hortonworks along with algorithms such as MapReduce and Luminar customized ones to profile consumer types with a high degree of precision. This fundamental technical platform for Big Data analytic should be established and tested to be reliable by end of year 1. Medium term: 1 year -3 years Starting this period, Luminar should invite representatives from each internal department and work together on the development of both external customer facing products as well as the internal customer facing products. Those representatives should be people welcome to any change and they would also be responsible for acting as the change agents for their corresponding departments. Those 3 products targeting at external customers should receive higher priority. By end of mid of year 2, the prototypes of the 3 products should be ready for test. Sales team should working closely with Luminar and get involved in the product development process. The reason why promoting sales team involvement is that it would offer enough information and training for them to change their messages to pitch customers. And by end of year 2, the final delivery of these 3 products should be ready for any potential business opportunity to generating revenue. After the external products were developed, Luminar would shift their efforts to focus on developing those internal products. Those representatives from each department should be involved within the development process and feed update back to their own departments. By end of the mid of year 3, prototypes for internal products should be ready for testing and initial training. By end of the year 3, the final internal products should be in production and full  scale of training should be in place. Organizational change effort could be started parallelly in this period with the product development. Successful transformational change must have supports from the c-level, as a result, Rios should work with Ulloa to secure buy-in within board of directors and executives to support the organization culture change. Kotter’s 8 steps could be used to direct the change process. By end of this period, Luminar should be able to successfully secure large scale internal buy-in and would offer them a health and sustainable environment for future growth. Long term: 3 – 5 years In this long term period, with further adoption of internal products within various departments, analytical DNA should started to spread over through word of mouth, performance dashboards and etc. The culture change process should also benefit from the above achievement. For Luminar, its primary objectives in this term would be maintain and improve both the external and internal products. At the same time, Luminar would focus on revenue growth and work hard to achieve that 10 percent of total revenues of Entravision by end of the fifth year. If Luminar turned out to be a successful corporate entrepreneurship adventure, Entravision should make Luminar as an example in the future to leverage another corporate entrepreneurship to facing any future revolutionary industry change.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Decision Making Process Of An E Commerce Site

When it comes to launching an e-commerce site selling directly to consumers, there are many risks to be considered in the decision-making process. For A Couple of Squares, they need to consider the sheer time commitment it takes to run the online aspect of a business. Erb and Bradshaw wants to make sure the system is all put in order before they start to take orders to prevent any unwanted work or stress for the staff once the website is launched. With this Erb says the website will take of half of her time before the launch and more afterwards. (CITE)(B) Another risk is the impact of launching a website might have their already established B2B (business to business) customers. The owners fear these customers may feel they are trying to take away their B2C (business to consumer) market and then withdrawal their business from the company. (CITE)(B) Finally, is the risk of selling their products in the United States. 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Monday, December 30, 2019

Take Home Econ. - 2339 Words

ECON 101 – Macroeconomics Exam 1 (Take-home Part) Name Daniel Martinez Multiple Choice. Encircle the correct answer. [Bring a pencil on Saturday because you will put all your answers to this exam on a scantron sheet.] 1. Rice and potatoes are substitutes. Suppose the price of rice rises and and at the same time there is a bumper (bountiful) crop of potatoes, in the market for potatoes one would expect the: A) equilibrium price to rise, fall, or stay the same and equilibrium quantity to rise. B) equilibrium price to rise and the equilibrium quantity to fall. C) equilibrium price and quantity both to fall. D) equilibrium price to rise and the equilibrium quantity to fall, rise, or stay the same. 2.†¦show more content†¦Your decision is an example of the economic principle called: A) opportunity-cost decision. B) people responding to incentives. C) equity decision. D) marginal decision making. 12. Which of the following is most likely to shift the supply of milk to the right? A) a tax on each gallon of milk produced B) an increase in household income and milk is a normal good C) a decrease in the price of feed given to dairy cows D) the bankruptcy of many small dairy farms 13. If we add up the consumer spending on goods and services, investment spending, government purchases of goods and services, and the value of exports, then subtract the value of imports, we have measured the nation s: A) disposable income. B) gross domestic product. C) trade deficit. D) value added. 14. Gross domestic product is defined as: A) consumer spending + government purchases + financial spending + exports – imports. B) consumer spending + government transfers + investment spending + exports – imports. C) disposable income + taxes + investment spending + exports + imports. D) consumer spending + government purchases + investment spending + exports – imports. 15. Rapidly increasing health costs have been a major political concern since at least 1992. Suppose the government sets the maximum price for a normal doctor s visit at $20 to control rising health costs but the currentShow MoreRelatedDiscuss Pros and Cons for Joining the Trans-Pacific Partnership837 Words   |  3 Pagesmillion people. It also has a combined Total GDP of $28.1 trillion US dollars. That is almost equivalent to 40% of the world’s economy, and they are all available for open trade once Econ 305 Rose Schaufele, Jesse Long this trade agreement fully takes effect (Trans 2014). In regards to the Asia Pacific region, â€Å"The region is home to 40% of the world’s population, produces nearly 60% of global GDP, and includes some of the fastest growing economies in the world (Williams 2013).† Also, trade with United StatesRead MoreEssay On Leading And Lagging Indicators1336 Words   |  6 Pagesphase is contraction or sometimes called recession. It starts at the peak and ends at the trough, this happens because the economic growth weakens. GDP growth falls below 2 percent, and when it turns negative, this is what economists call a recession. (Econ, 2017) When the economy contracts, or busts, productivity declines, business revenues go down and companies lay off workers to decrease expenses. Unemployment rises, and consumers spend less. When the GDP declines over two consecutive quarters, a recessionRead MoreMarketing Goals And Objectives Of A New Zealand Appliance Market Essay2360 Words   |à ‚  10 Pages Econ Innovation’s first product is an eco-friendly refrigerator resourced from recycled materials, with smart technology and app capabilities to inform owners of upcoming food wastage. The Smart Fridge aims to combine luxurious aesthetics with eco-conscious manufacturing practices to provide a solution to growing global concern surrounding food wastage which in currently overlooked by competitors in the New Zealand appliance market. Econ Innovation has identified the target market as female householdRead MoreEssay on Econ 102 Quiz1479 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Econ 102 quiz 1 Question 1 of 10  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.0/ 10.0 Points Economics is best defined as the study of   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  A. financial decision-making  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  B. how consumers make purchasing decisions.   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  C. choices made by people faced with scarcity.   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  D. inflation, unemployment, and economic growth  Ã‚  Ã‚   Answer Key: C Question 2 of 10  Ã‚  Ã‚  10.0/ 10.0 Points Macroeconomics differs from microeconomics in that   Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  A. macroeconomics is the study of individual markets, while microeconomicsRead MoreDeveloping a Mentor Program for Nurses1454 Words   |  6 Pages Haag-Heitman B. Clinical Practice and Standards, Extendicare Health Services Inc., Milwauke Madigan C, Letvak S. Nurs Econ. 2008 Jul-Aug;26(4):243-9. The organizational impact of a new graduate pediatric nurse mentoring program. Halfer D, Graf E, Sullivan C. Clinical and Organizational Development, Children s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Nurs Econ. 2007 May-Jun;25(3):143-8; quiz 149. The role of nursing leadership in creating a mentoring culture in acute care environmentsRead MoreBUS 170 Syllabus1472 Words   |  6 PagesBahram Parineh Office Location: BT 460 Telephone: (408) 924-3482 Email: Office Hours: Tu/Th 9:00am-12:00pm or by appointment Class Days/Time: Tu/Th 7:30-8:45am Classroom: BBC 202 Prerequisites: BUS 21 or BUS 122A, ECON 1A, ECON 1B and BUS 90 Course Description The finance function and its relation to other decision-making areas in the firm; the study of theory and techniques in acquisition and allocation of financial resources from an internal management perspectiveRead MoreQuestions On Buying A Home Or Renting984 Words   |  4 PagesAbdulhakeem Usman Prof. Shick ECON 208 CT Essay 1. Explain the problem. Clearly summarize the main issues and relate why there is a problem. Over the years, people have had to make the choice of either buying a home or renting one. Your choice of living may depend on your lifestyle and financial ability. Buying a home or renting is a complex decision most families and individuals have faced in their lifetime. There are so many factors to be considered – location, access to amenities and proximityRead MoreMad Money940 Words   |  4 PagesTammy Phan Econ 100B Economic Summary: Mad Money The movie, Mad Money, is about an upper middle class woman, Bridget Cardigan who was used to the finer things in life when she is suddenly forced to go into the work force after her husband gets downsized. Faced with the reality of losing her home as her debt begins to increase, Bridget accepts a job on the cleaning crew at a local branch of the Federal Reserve Bank. With the growing temptation of the cash that surrounds her night after night ultimatelyRead MoreWhat Gross Domestic Product ( Gdp ) Is A Better Life? Essay867 Words   |  4 PagesHoChun Lam Professor Robert Horito ECON-2010-380 October 31, 2015 Life Quality and Economy Most people may know what gross domestic product (GDP) is. And most people think that if a country has a high GDP, it tells us the country is strong. High GDP countries’ people have higher salary, higher material life, and more economic activity. However, it does not mean that high GDP countries’ people have a better life. For example, most of high GDP countries have serious pollution problem. Therefore, theyRead MoreForeign Exchange Market Essay example786 Words   |  4 Pagesecon †¢ ___ must choose can exchange rate system to determine how prices in the home country currency are converted into prices in another country’s currency (every country) †¢ A managed floating exchange rate refers to (an exchange rate that is not pegged, but does not float freely) †¢ A small country with strong economic ties to a larger country should (PEG ((HARD OR SOFT)) THEIR EXCHANGE RATE TO THE LARGER COUNTRY’S CURRENCY) †¢ An increase in the real exchange rate (real depreciation of domestic

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Stem Cell Gene Therapy Essay - 903 Words

In recent years, hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC GT) has emerged as an innovative strategy to cure several primary immunodeficiency disorders such as Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS). The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an â€Å"X-linked, complex primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by mutations in the WAS gene and is characterized by recurrent infections, thrombocytopenia, eczema, autoimmunity and an increased risk of lymphoma† (1). Severe WAS can lead to fatality in the patient from infection or hemorrhage (1). Earlier, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was used as the standard approach for the treatment of WAS but recently, due to the promising and long term results, HSC gene†¦show more content†¦Braun and his colleagues also performed a comprehensive analysis of the gamma-retroviral vector’s integration sites (IS) and concluded that the integrations were mostly accumulated at the transcription start site (TSS) of genes (1). The surprising element of the study was that most of these genes were known proto-oncogenes (like LMO2 and MDS1), indicating that the -retroviral vectors clearly has a preference towards oncogenes or proto-oncogenes for its integration and should thus be reconsidered for its use as a safe delivery system for gene therapy. In this study, the use of gamma-retroviral vector was associated with an exceptionally high rate of secondary malignancies in WAS, raising considerable safety concerns (2). This shortcoming has been increasingly raising concerns in researchers working on gene therapy and has been keeping them from using the readily available and easily transducible retroviral vectors for their experiments and trials. This is also the reason why most studies today use lentiviral vectors, which do not have the issue of causing insertional mutations, rather than retroviral vectors. To overcome the drawback of classic -retroviral vectors mentioned above, the authors of this study proposed the use of self-inactivating (SIN) viruses as vectors for gene therapy. A SIN retrovirus isShow MoreRelatedEssay On 20 Years Of Advancement In Healthcare Science1109 Words   |  5 Pageshealthcare science. These have allowed for improved diagnoses and more effective treatments lowering the prevalence of diseases. The first significant advancement discussed in this essay is The Human Genome Project (HGP), an international collaborative research program whose goal was to sequence and map all of the genes (known as the genome) contained within humans. This project has revolutionised the biomedical field and has already inspired further projects. Several techniques were used to achieveRead More Stem Cells: What How and Why? Essay1130 Words   |  5 Pages Stem Cells: What, How and Why? Stem cells are infinitely valuable when considering their potential applications in the medical profession. While current legislative restrictions have halted the development of new ?stem cell lines? to any agency or company that receives any form of governmental grants, there is no question that the medical profession is standing at the brink of a new era of technological advancements in healthcare and research. Stem cells are valuable due to the fact that theyRead MoreEssay about Applications of Gene Modification869 Words   |  4 Pagesengineering. The modification of genes is becoming a popular application in science, but some people aren’t ready. Genetic engineering will play a big part in the scientific world in the next few years. Most people don’t think this is a good thing, but the use of genetic modification can increase the worlds standard of living by letting scientists dictate how everyday things can be rigged to benefit humanity. There are plenty of naysayers when it comes to tampering with genes. A lot of the people who areRead MoreParkinson s Disease As A Medical Condition1437 Words   |  6 Pagesliterature. It wasn’t until 1817 that a London doctor, named James Parkinson, wrote a detailed medical essay on this disease. This essay established Parkinson’s disease as a recognized medical condition. He based the essay off of six cases he had observed previously and hoped that it would encourage others to study the disease. No such research was performed until finally, sixty years after Parkinson’s essay was published, a French neurologist named Jean Charcot studied the disease and was the first toRead MoreThe Human Body Limits Iron Stores1287 Words   |  6 PagesGenes are small segments of DNA (on a specific locus of a chromosome) that contain the code used to synthesise a protein and mRNA molecule (Khan Academy, 2014). The ‘normal’ function of the HFE protein involved wi th haemochromatosis is to regulate the production of the protein hepcidin, produced in the liver, which determines levels of dietary iron absorption and the it’s release from storage sites in the body (, 2014). The human body limits iron stores through the HFE proteinRead MoreProgress in the Reasearch on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 528 Words   |  3 Pagesstudy in stem cell research. They reprogrammed mouse skin fibroblasts by introduction of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc and generated cells almost indistinguishable from ES cells. They named these cells induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (Takahashi K., et al., 2006). An year later, James A. Thomson et al. replaced Oct4 and oncogenic c-Myc with Lin28 and Nanog decreasing the risk of cancer formation (Yu J., et al., 2007). We need to take into consideration that cell typesRead MoreThe Affects of Duchenne Muscular Distrophy749 Words   |  3 Pagesdystrophy as well as various solutions performed to provide accurate diagnoses and treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 1. Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is defined as a chronic form of dystrophy that is caused by a mutated gene. This essay critically discusses Duchenne muscular dystrophy as a whole, including all the symptoms, causes as well as treatment. 2. Overview of Duchenne muscular dystrophy Duchenne muscular dystrophy was discovered by a French neurologist, Guillaume DuchenneRead MoreMedical Ethics : Adult Stem Cell Research Essay1565 Words   |  7 Pages Tennisa Saunders Medical Ethics Adult Stem Cell Research Professor December 2016 In this essay I decided to write on Stem. Initially, I began by defining what stem cell is and the different types of stem cell scientist work with. I include the medical scenario of a woman from Huston by the name of Debbie Bertrand who suffered from Multiple Sclerosis. I also included Dr. Lall, discovery of stem cells in baby teeth, because I found the article to be very interesting. Philosophical questionRead MoreChronic Myeloid Leukaemi Symptoms And Treatment795 Words   |  4 Pageshematopoietic proliferative disorder associated with a specific defect in the gene (Ciesla 2007, pp. 189). The gene defect is caused due to the translocation of the genetic material between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22 (t9: 22). The translocation prompts to the development of a hybrid gene BCR-ALB in the Philadelphia chromosome, or Ph1. Therefore, this fusion gene mutation affects the maturation and differentiation of the haematopoietic cells (Ciesla 2007, pp. 189). However the introduction of a BC R-ALB particularRead MoreThe Cell Cycle, Genetic Variation, Mendelian Genetics, And Complex Genetic Inheritance917 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction: This essay will explore the cell cycle, cancer, cancer, mitosis and meioses, genetic variation, Mendelian genetics, and complex genetic inheritance. Each area will be broken down in further detail, and the result should demonstrate the knowledge learned on the subjects. The Cell Cycle The cell cycle is a series of stages that occurs when a new cells makes the division from the parent cell to two daughter cells. This is a stage in cellular reproduction. The cell cycle consists of three